Gut Microbiota and Diseases

Human intestines are home to more than a trillion microbes, of about 1000 species, weighing more than 2 kgs. These microbes are intricately related to the functions of not only the intestinal tract, but also of every organ in the body, particularly the nervous system, endocrinal system, immune system and several metabolic pathways. Modern diet and lifestyle, and also use of medications, are affecting the quantity, quality and functioning of these microbes. Recent studies have revealed interesting facts about the relationships between gut microbes and human diseases, of the body and the mind.

Gut microbiota and possible molecular pathways linked to cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases [See]

Tang WHW, Kitai T, Hazen SL. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease. Circulation Research. 2017;120:1183–1196. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.309715 Available at https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.309715

Tang WHW, Li DY, Hazen SL. Dietary metabolism, the gut microbiome, and heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol 2019;16:137–154. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-018-0108-7. Available at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41569-018-0108-7

Gérard C, Vidal H. Impact of Gut Microbiota on Host Glycemic Control. Front. Endocrinol. 30 January 2019 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00029. Available at https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00029/full

Thakur AK, Shakya A, Husain GM, Emerald M, Kumar V. Gut-Microbiota and Mental Health: Current and Future Perspectives. J Pharmacol Clin Toxicol 2014;2(1):1016. Available at https://www.jscimedcentral.com/Pharmacology/pharmacology-2-1016.php

Fan Y, Pedersen O. Gut microbiota in human metabolic health and disease. Nat Rev Microbiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-0433-9. Available at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41579-020-0433-9

Ussar S, Fujisaka S, Kahn R. Interactions between host genetics and gut microbiome in diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Molecular Metabolism. September 2016;5(9):795-803. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212877816300977

Herrema H, Niess JH. Intestinal microbial metabolites in human metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2020;63:2533–2547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05268-4. Available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00125-020-05268-4

Anhê FF, Barra NG, Schertzer JD. Glucose alters the symbiotic relationships between gut microbiota and host physiology. Am J Phys End Met. 21 Jan 2020. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00485.2019. Available at https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajpendo.00485.2019?journalCode=ajpendo

Scheithauer TPM, Rampanelli E, Nieuwdorp M, Vallance BA, Verchere CB, van Raalte DH, Herrema H. Gut Microbiota as a Trigger for Metabolic Inflammation in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020;11;2546.
DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2020.571731. Available at https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2020.571731

Niccolai E, Boem F, Russo E, Amedei A. The Gut–Brain Axis in the Neuropsychological Disease Model of Obesity: A Classical Movie Revised by the Emerging Director “Microbiome”. Nutrients 2019;11(1):156. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010156. Available at https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/1/156/htm

Sohail MU, Althani A, Anwar H, Rizzi R, Marei HE. Role of the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome in the Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Diabetes Research. Volume 2017 |Article ID 9631435 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9631435. Available at https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2017/9631435/

Borrellia A, Bonellia P, Tuccillo M et al. Role of gut microbiota and oxidative stress in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to hepatocarcinoma: Current and innovative therapeutic approaches. Redox Biology. May 2018;15:467-479. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231717309291

Wiest R, Albillos A, Trauner M, Bajaj JS, Jalan R. Targeting the gut-liver axis in liver disease. J Hepatol. November 01, 2017;67(5):1084-1103 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.05.007. Available at https://www.journal-of-hepatology.eu/article/s0168-8278(17)32016-0/fulltext

He Ff, Li Ym. Role of gut microbiota in the development of insulin resistance and the mechanism underlying polycystic ovary syndrome: a review. J Ovarian Res 2020;13:73. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-020-00670-3. Available at https://ovarianresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13048-020-00670-3

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