Sleep Apnoea

Obstructive sleep apnoea is closely linked to metabolic syndrome and its components such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Weight reduction and dietary restrictions play a major role in reversing OSA.

The bidirectional relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic disease. [See]

Framnes SN, Arble DM. The Bidirectional Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Disease. Front. Endocrinol. 06 August 2018 | Available at

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Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Athanassiou P. Metabolic syndrome and sleep apnea. Hippokratia. 2008;12(2):81-86.Available at

Castaneda A, Jauregui-Maldonado E, Ratnani I, Varon J, Surani S. Correlation between metabolic syndrome and sleep apnea. World J Diabetes. 2018;9(4):66-71. doi:10.4239/wjd.v9.i4.66 Available at

Calvin AD, Albuquerque FN, Lopez-Jimenez F, Somers VK. Obstructive sleep apnea, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7(4):271-278. doi:10.1089/met.2008.0093. Available at

Lam JCM, Ip MSM. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Metabolic Syndrome. Expert Rev Resp Med. 2009;3(2):177-186. Available at

Bonsignore MR, Borel A-R, Machan E, Grunstein R. Sleep apnoea and metabolic dysfunction. European Respiratory Review 2013;22: 353-364. DOI: 10.1183/09059180.00003413. Available at

Singh SK, Tentu AK, Singh S, Singh N, Dash C, Singh V, Laxmivandana R, Warrier R. Association of metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea patients: An experience from zonal tertiary care hospital in Eastern India. Indian J Respir Care [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 18];9:71-6. Available from:

Obstructive Sleep Apnea May Be Improved With Low-Energy Diet: A single-center, prospective, observational follow-up study has found that a very low-energy diet leads to improvements in moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in obese men, with benefits maintained at 1 year and proportional to weight loss and baseline severity. [Full text | Report]

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