Several studies have found strong correlation of metabolic syndrome with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Wu P, Ma L, Dai GX et al. The association of metabolic syndrome with reflux esophagitis: a case‐control study. Neurogastro Motil. November 2011;23(11):989-994. Available at

Mohammadi M, Ramezani Jolfaie N, Alipour R, Zarrati M. Is Metabolic Syndrome Considered to Be a Risk Factor for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (Non-Erosive or Erosive Esophagitis)?: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18(11):e30363. Published 2016 Aug 8. doi:10.5812/ircmj.30363. Available at

Ierardi E, Rosania R, Zotti M, Principe S, Laonigro G, Giorgio F, Francesco V, Panella C. Metabolic syndrome and gastro-esophageal reflux: A link towards a growing interest in developed countries. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 2010; 1(3): 91-96. DOI: URL:

Hirata A, Kishida K, Nakatsuji H. et al. High prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in type 2 diabetics with hypoadiponectinemia and metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2012;9:4. Available at

Hsieh YH, Wu MF, Yang PY et al. What is the impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on reflux esophagitis? A cross-sectional study. BMC Gastroenterol 2019;19:33. Available at

Nomura M, Tashiro N, Watanabe T et al. Association of Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux with Metabolic Syndrome Parameters in Patients with Endocrine Disease. International Scholarly Research Notices. vol. 2014, Article ID 863206, 6 pages, 2014. Available at

Kallel L, Bibani N, Fekih M et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease based on a 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Dis Esophagus. 2011 Apr;24(3):153-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2010.01118.x. Available at

Niigaki M, Adachi K, Hirakawa K et al. Association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a health screening facility in Japan. J Gastroenterol 2013;48:463–472. Available at

Punjabi P, Hira A, Prasad S, Wang X, Chokhavatia S. Review of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the diabetic patient. J Diab. September 2015;7(5):599-609. Available at

Chung SJ. Oesophagus Metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity as risk factors for reflux oesophagitis: a cross-sectional case–control study of 7078 Koreans undergoing health check-ups. Gut 2008;57:1360-1365.

Park JH et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with erosive esophagitis World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(35):5442–5447. URL:

Lee Y-C. The effect of metabolic risk factors on the natural course of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Gut 2009;58:174-181. URL:

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