Osteoporosis is increasing in younger population, and links to modern diet and metabolic syndrome are emerging.

Possible mechanisms for how an overconsumption of sugar may cause osteoporosis. [See]

DiNicolantonio JJ, Mehta V, Zaman SB, O’Keefe JH. Not Salt But Sugar As Aetiological In Osteoporosis: A Review. Mo Med. 2018;115(3):247-252. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140170/

Bartl R., Frisch B. (2009) The Metabolic Syndrome – A Major Cause of Osteoporosis in the World Today. In: Osteoporosis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79527-8_36. Available at https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-79527-8_36

Sugimoto T, Sato M, Dehle FC, Brnabic AJM, Weston A, Burge R. Lifestyle-Related Metabolic Disorders, Osteoporosis, and Fracture Risk in Asia: A Systematic Review. Value in Health Regional Issues. May 2016;9:49-56. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212109915000655

Zhou J, Zhang Q, Yuan X, Wang J, Li C, Sheng H, Qu S, Li H. Association between metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis: a meta-analysis. Bone. 2013 Nov;57(1):30-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.07.013. Available at https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23871747/

Collins KH, Herzog W, MacDonald GZ, Reimer RA, Rios JL, Smith IC, Zernicke RF, Hart DA. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Musculoskeletal Disease: Common Inflammatory Pathways Suggest a Central Role for Loss of Muscle Integrity. Frontiers in Physiology. 2018;9:112. DOI=10.3389/fphys.2018.00112. Available at https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2018.00112

Yu C-Y, Chen F-P, Chen L-W, Kuo S-F, Chien R-N. Association between metabolic syndrome and bone fracture risk. Medicine. December 2017;96(50):e9180. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009180. Available at https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/fulltext/2017/12150/association_between_metabolic_syndrome_and_bone.77.aspx

Oliveira MC, Vullings J, van de Loo FAJ. Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are two sides of the same coin paid for obesity. Nutrition. 2020;70:110486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.04.001. Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0899900718313327

Higher Calcium Intake May Not Lower Risk for Fractures and Osteoporosis: A 19 years prospective study of 61 433 women has revealed that highest quintile of calcium intake did not further reduce the risk of fractures of any type, or of osteoporosis, but was associated with a higher rate of hip fracture. [Eva Warensjö et al. Dietary calcium intake and risk of fracture and osteoporosis: prospective longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2011;342:d1473 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d1473 | Report]

Overweight Kids Risk Weak Bones, Diabetes: Abdominal Fat May Play a Role in Bone Strength Norman K Pollock et al. Lower bone mass in prepubertal overweight children with pre-diabetes Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Jul 2010 Abstract | Report]

Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys Abstract in Science, 10 July, 2009; BBC News; Science News

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