Lipid Disorders

Abnormalities of serum lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, are components of metabolic syndrome, which is increasingly being seen as related to modern diet, comprising of sugars, especially fructose.

Metabolism of fructose in the intestine and liver that contributes to dyslipidemia [See]

Taskinen M-R, Packard CJ, Borén J. Dietary Fructose and the Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2019;11(9):1987. Available at

Tappy L, Lê K-A. Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity. Physiological Reviews January 2010;90(1):23-46. Available at

Akhtar DH, Iqbal U, Vazquez-Montesino LM, Dennis BB, Ahmed A. Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and Atherogenic Dyslipidemia in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2019;7(4):362. doi: 10.14218/JCTH.2019.00028. Available at

Malik VS, Hu FB. Fructose and Cardiometabolic Health. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;66(14):1615-1624. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.025 Available at

Hieronimus B, Medici V, Bremer AA. Synergistic effects of fructose and glucose on lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults. Metabolism. November 2020;112:154356. Available at

Zhang D-M, Jiao R-Q, Kong LD. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions. Nutrients 2017;9(4):335. Available at

Nuts in Place of carbohydrates Helps Control Blood Sugar and Serum Lipids: Two ounces of nuts daily as a replacement for carbohydrate foods improves both glycemic control and serum lipids in type 2 diabetes.[Jenkins DJA. Nuts as a Replacement for Carbohydrates in the Diabetic Diet. Diabetes Care August 2011;34(8):1706-1711. Full text

Low-Carb and Mediterranean Diets Better than Low-Fat for Weight Loss, Lipid Changes at 2 Years: Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets, offering more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet).
See Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:229-241 Full text Article

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